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Air Transportation

Modern science has made the life easy for people. With the help of innovation in technology, our lifestyle becomes updated. Now, we are in the edge of Modern scientific world. What was our dream yesterday becomes the reality today. Scientific triumph is seen everywhere around us and bring blessings to the mankind. In the field of transportation science make revolutionary change as many new forms of transportations invented.

The face of earth has been changed and science has change the mode of lifestyle in the past hundred years than in last four thousand years before. We have observed the gifts of science of motor cars, steam engine, electric and magnetic trains. But we can be amazed to see the marvelous and greatest invention of flying like a bird in the sky. Previously we were satisfied traveling with the buses, trains, automobiles, even boats and ships. But the dream of moving through air becomes the reality when different forms of air transportation are innovated. In 1903, Wright brothers discovered aero-plane.

“Air transportation is the movement or transport of human and objects from one place to another by air”. Now in the busy world air transportation becomes the very easy and time saving ways for travel across the world. It is the fastest, shortest, quickest means of the carrier. This forms of travel is very much comfortable. It gives us the unique opportunity and brings excitement and thrilling while moving from one location to another.

In this pleasant journey no traffic jam and other sorts of barriers are seen. Overall journey by air is much safe, sound and cool experience to the travelers. With the help of air transportation the world has become a mere global family. It successfully exceeds the distant and time constant in journey.

This mode of transportation is still quite costly and since only affluent section of the society can afford it. So, for busy business people especially the top business managers and organization heads, the top officials of any country and other people who have the money used to take air transportation for traveling.

There are various advantages and disadvantages of using air travel. But the advantages are innumerous and the usefulness of taking air transport removes the time and distance limitations. Now people fly to many parts of the worlds with the least time and with very comfortable ways.

Not only for peak time but also for any time during the year, you can book your air ticket. The price of air travel depends on the types of the class of the set, the selection of the airline, destination etc. Bruckner (2002), Daniel and Pahwa, (2000) discussed about the demand management which is becoming a bigger challenge in the airline industry.

The history and evolution of air transportation has come across a long way. Around 400 BC, in Ancient Chine, kites were used as the religious customs. Initially kites are made for fun but later more sophisticated kites are tested to know the motion of the wind and weather. From centuries, man have desired to fly and touch the sky like a bird.

Hero of Alexandria who was a famous ancient Greek engineer worked with stream and air pressure to reveal the sources of power. He had tried some experiments in these fields with a water kettle and fire to get some concepts about power. 

In 1492, Theories of flight was designed by Leonardo da Vinci. He has given over hundred of drawings to highlight his ideas about the concept of flight. Most of his drawings depict the ideas for man carrying machines with wings and trails of birds. His design of Ornithopter is quite similar to the helicopter in the modern time. Aviation pioneers and contributor to this field have examined the concept of Vinci in 19th century.

In 1783, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier brothers developed the first hot air balloon. The earliest hot balloon climbed 6000 feet high and passed about one mile with a sheep, duck and roosters. Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois Laurent are the first human passengers who flown on November 21, 1783.

Sir George Caysley who has distinguished between lift and drag experimented with wing design in order to find out how human can fly in the sky. His experiments took place between 1799 and 1850s. A young boy was the first passenger of Canley’s gliders. He has dedicated fifty years in to make updating his theory. He changed the shape of the wing of gliders for smooth air blowing across the wings. In his work, “On Ariel Navigation” he has given clue for human to fly in the sky.

Otto Lilienthal was a German engineer studied aerodynamics and he was the first person of glider designer. Using his design subsequent engineers got various clues of flying techniques. He was so much enthralled and exited about flight design that he wrote a book and published in 1889. His work was taken by the Wright brothers as a base of flight design.

In 1891, Samuel Langley built a place called aerodrome. On December 17, 1903, Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright took their first flight in the air. They had studied the earlier works, took good concept and implement in their experiment. They studied the motion of wind and other scientific factors and did the research.

1st the Wright brothers tested with the gliders and designed the wind tunnel to alter the wing’s shapes. Later they create a propulsion system use to make the lift for fly. Orville piloted the plane which was 605 pounds in weight. US govt bought the 1st plane form Wright brothers in 1909 with a value of $25000 and awarded a bonus of $5000 for exceed forty mph.

There are different types of air travel that exists both commercially and private. Some of them have been developed many years ago and some are developed recently couple of years back. Today’s hot air balloons are used with the same technology and feature of the previously invented balloons. In a wicker basket heat source and passengers are placed under the shed of the balloon. According to the direction of the wind, balloon moves with the increase of heat.

Various colorful and attractive balloons are seen as a medium of air transportation. The most popular means of air transport is the fixed wing airplane. Flight tracking organization flight ware claims that over 49315 commercial flights operate globally on a daily basis. Nearly 1.2 billion people of the world use airplane as a means of transportation. So we can find the impact of Air transportation on the social life of people.

For smooth takeoff and landing a long runway is required at the airport. Propeller is used to warm up the place for flight and wings work as wind stabilizer. The airplanes are designed in such a way that they can withstand any bad situation in the air like bad weather or other natural or manual problems. The pilots are so adept in handling the air plane; they are enabling to ride a plane even in most risky and dangerous situation.

Helicopters are other medium of air transport. Mainly it is used to carry the soldiers into the remote areas where with the airplane can be accessible. The apache helicopter is the modern sand sophisticated form of transportation used in the defense. In the emergency situation of any country like flood or cyclones, the relief can be reached to the affected people though helicopter. Personal air transport is seen for the richest people of the world.

The importance of air transportation is unimaginable. It takes days even months to travel via seas but it takes only couple of hours to reach any destination via air. Toady air travel become very much common. Most of the countries of the world use this medium of transport. Brueckner (2005) studied about the fact of managing the passengers need to travel via air. The air line authorities need to give more focus to fulfill the growing need of air transport of the people. Many companies currently producing large and most sophisticated air plane with the state of the art technology

Research is being conducted to at NASA Langley Research Center to fly the Pacific Ocean in few hours of time or try to develop jumbo jet having giant wings that carries over 700 passengers. Airbus, the aircraft manufacturer has a plan named “engineers dream”. The company wants to make this dream in to reality by 2030 which they claimed will be the future of air transport.

The plane will have all the latest and comfortable facilities of our imagination. The aircraft will have the design of cabins and engines, aerodynamics and aircraft materials. The seat of the plane will have self cleaning materials designed for a snug fit. Walls of the plane will give 360 views with transparent see through button. The use of green energy like solar panels, fuel cells and body heat used to generate power all the systems will be presented in the future aircraft.

The safety measures will be the most focus of future air Transportation. The future planes will be designed in such a way to provide the passengers with utmost safety and security. The seating arrangements, trouble handling measures will be so updated that passengers will be highly delighted with the service.

Another aspect of future airplane is to reach the destination with the fastest mode. The speed of future plane will be super fast. The air transportation in the future will become not only comfortable but also memorable. Various aspects of Airport services demand and supply  have been discussed  in the work of  Zografos and Madas (2003). They tried to show different approaches in this matter. The cargo transporters will become more flexible and less time consuming.

Various Commercial airlines allow citizens to attend different business programs, holiday vacation, and tour to the globe. Many long distance cargos are moved quickly via air transport. Human and cargo carriers are shipped on charters or regular frequent basis. In an airport various flights are scheduled for variety of destination. People can take the service by booking the tickets online or manually.

The future of airplane industry will be focused on the green energy especially solar energy. Some researches were conducted to highlight the future dimension and nature of air transport using the green and other alternative sources of energy. Ausubel and meyer (1998) , Bhadra, Gentry and Wells (2005) This new sources of alternative energy bring opportunities that can be applied to Air plane industry. Various researches are ongoing to develop viable and cost reducing energy for the airplane. We hope that in the very near future this imagination will become the reality and transportation via air becomes very much pleasant and comfortable.

Air transportation unlike other modes of transportation has much impact in the economy of any country. Developed countries and provide the best facilities of Air transport by establishing various airports in the busy and important states across the country. When people are provided with much innovative and safe means of air transport facilities, the revenue of the air industry will increase.

When destinations are very far away, commercial airplane travel become the most comfortable and quick means. Sometimes accidental issues and risk of life may occur in air travel. But the same can be happens to other mode of communication like water and road transportation.

Most of the airplanes are equipped with many features and facilities that give the passengers the unique opportunity of traveling. The food and stuff are well served and the air hostess shows their warm hospitability that can delight anyone who travels by air for the first time. The air plane industry owner tries to provide the home environment during the travel by air. The state of the art technology and the digital equipment of entertainment take you in the world of imagination.

Air travel is very convenience especially when you are in a hurry or rush situation. Schank (2005) discussed about several pricing strategy of the airline industry. The peak and off-peak pricing and its effect on the passengers to take air transport have been highlighted in their study.You can book the air ticket easily by making a phone call to any traveling agent. There are several organizations that may assist you in answering your quires about air travel.

Air transportation system brings us the opportunity to move the cargo in very quickest and fastest time. Journey by air is very pleasant and interesting. It gives good feelings and excitement to the passengers on board. The outside scenery observed from the plane is very charming.

Air Transport makes the far distance place very close. We can now travel anywhere in the world within no time. The transport of human and the cargo are two types of service the airline industry serves.

With the expansion of global business and transaction with distant parts of the world, it requires a swift mode of transport system. People are previously in search of the need of such type of service. Now with the invention of modern science air transport meets the hidden desire of people to move from one place to another by air. The air transport system is a blessing of the modern science which unveils the opportunities of serving a distinct group of people who want to travel by air.

 Apart from other transportation medium like transport by water or road transportation, air transportation is very much popular and useful mode of transportation. Now business head managers and top officials of the state can attend any foreign meeting and programs quickly with the help of air transport and come back within very short time.


Brueckner, J.K. (2002), “Internalization of airport congestion”, Journal of Air Transport Management, 8, 141-147.

Zografos, K.G. and Madas, M.A. (2003),“Critical assessment of airport demand management Strategies in Europe and the United States – comparative perspectives”,

Brueckner, J.K. (2005), “Internalization of airport congestion: a network analysis”, International Journal of Industrial Organization,23, 599-614.

Air Transportation Challenges: Airspace, Airports, and Access. Transportation Research record, 1850, 41-48

Daniel, J.I. and Pahwa, M. (2000), “Comparisonof three empirical models of airport congestion pricing”, Journal of Urban Economics, 47, 1-38

Ausubel, J. H.; Marchetti, C.; Meyer (1998) P. S. To w a r d Green Mobility: The Evolution of Transport. E u r o p e a n Review, 6 (2), 137–156

Bhadra, D., J. Gentry, B. Hogan, and M. Wells. (2005) “Future Air Traffic Timetable Estimator,” Journal of Aircraft, 42(2), 320-328.

Schank, J.L. (2005), “Solving airside airport congestion: why peak runway pricing is not

Working”,  Journal of Air Transport Management, 11,417-425.

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