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Bill of Rights


Criminal justice and security system happens to be one of the largest industries in the United States of America. The historical development of the various law enforcement agencies and their jurisdiction has changed over the years in the years since the establishment of the first courts in the country. The law enforcement revolves around and tries to apply true methods of searching, arresting and interrogation that give individual rights. This essay will examine the various aspects of the criminal justice system and security including the objectives and challenges of law enforcement agencies, the roles of the federal, state, and local court systems, the objectives of the juvenile justice system, the roles of private security organizations with respect to both corporate and public protection and various solutions to the challenges that faces criminal justice organizations and security organizations.

Federal court system

This is sometimes referred to as the guardians of the constitution and they exist to fairly and impartially interpret and apply the laws, resolve the disputes and, most importantly protect the rights and liberties that are guaranteed by the constitution. These courts do not make the laws. It is the constitution that delegates making, amending and repealing the federal laws to the US congress (Government Printing Office)

State court system

The role of the state judiciary system is important to the operation of state government in general. These state courts interpret and apply state laws. They assist in resolving conflicts such as business disagreements and grievances that the citizens may have against each other. In addition, the state courts punish crimes that violate the state law. State courts are important because state most of the laws that affect the citizen on a daily basis are state and local laws and it is the responsibility of the state courts to interpret those laws.

Roles of the court systems with respect to public safety and civil rights

The courts interpret and apply the law when different parties are in dispute. In that way, courts take law out of the law books, and make it part of people’s lives. The courts apply the law to specific controversies that are brought before them. They resolve disputes between the individuals, companies and government unities.

 Often, the courts are called on to uphold some limitations on the government. They protect against abuses by all government branches. They protect the minorities of various kinds from the majority, and protect the rights of citizens who are not able to protect themselves. They also embody the important notions of equal and fair

The employment relationship under the American law is highly regulated by a complex, system of statues, administrative regulations and the judicial precedent at the federal, state and also at local level. The federal and state laws affects all the aspects of employment such as payment of wages, hiring of workers, compensation of overtime, workplace and general employee safety and employee discipline.  The court systems also interpret the in regard to employment based on gender, race, age, color and physical handicap (Government Printing Office).

The roles of private security organizations

 Few years ago, the term private security called to mind the image of the security guards with marginal qualifications for other functions who ended up accepting low wages. The private activities and policing have become complex and more important. The private security encompasses the occupations that range from the traditional security guards to the computer security experts and to the high ranking corporate vice presidents who are responsible for the planning and overseeing the safety and security at companies, industries and office complexes in the entire world. The olice image by Zeno from private security in the United States has a reputation for being lax compared to the public security. Many areas need additional security to protect property as well as individuals. Private security companies provide services ranging from armed and the unarmed security to uniformed and the plainclothes security, from electronic surveillance to inspection of vehicles and bomb detection, and from personal protection to preparation for low and high security threat scenarios. Due to the attacks of September 2001, the law enforcement private security has been seen as critical to preventing terrorism and terrorism acts. Since the private sector owns and protects about 80 percent of the world’s infrastructure, while the local law enforcement often has threat information regarding the infrastructure, law enforcement-private security can put vital information into the hands of the people who are in need of it. Thus, to effectively protect the nation’s infrastructure, law enforcement and private security must work collaboratively because neither possesses the necessary resources to do so alone (Green G and Fischer J. 2004).

The objectives of the juvenile justice system

The juvenile courts have jurisdiction over the individuals under the age of 18 who engage in unlawful conduct, with certain exceptions. Unlike the adult courts, the juvenile proceeding is not a criminal proceeding designed to determine the criminal responsibility and punishment but it is a civil proceeding designed to protect the young people from the consequences of their own conduct, develop responsibility for the unlawful behavior, rehabilitate them and promotes public safety. Other objectives of juvenile courts include addressing the offending behavior, minimizing the penetration of young people into the Criminal Justice System, promoting the uniqueness of adolescents, providing more effective community based responses, delivering culturally appropriate responses and assisting in the development of the young person's self identity.

The challenges facing criminal justice and security organizations and solutions

Most law enforcement agencies and officers in the united state do not have access to the new technologies that are used to fight crimes hence they are hindered in their intelligence gathering operations. The criminal justice and security systems should make use of some organizations that provides the required criminal intelligence and the investigative support services. For instance they should work in hand with Regional Information Sharing System (RISS) which always serves as the invaluable tool to the Federal State and the Local law enforcement agencies. RISS may give the agencies the required resources that they need to discover and apprehend the potential crimes before they happen (Congressional Record). The criminal justice and security systems should possess basic understanding of the justice system, including policing, structure of the court system, the role of the prosecutor and judge and the system of law, identify and read any previous similar assessments, request, in advance the statistical and management reports. Some of these reports are found on the internet.

The policymakers at government federal, state and local agencies should respond to United States country’s crime and safety concerns. They should however put in mind that it is more important to remember that the criminal issues in United States are multi-faceted, and that their respective responses towards the issues should be as well multi-faceted. The improvement of safety in the day-to-day lives of the residents of United States should be the responsibility of a wide range of justice agencies which are within the US country and not just law enforcement officials because the safety improvements facilitates the involvement of social service and public service providers, the federal and state officials, the youth workers, the residents of the tribal communities and tribal and non-American politicians. Also, they should meet with institutions, individuals, and professional and human rights organizations which are concerned with the issues that they may encounter on the mission of assessment, as well as the donors including embassies that provide bilateral assistance. These sources may provide some valuable background information for conducting thorough assessments as well as the invaluable in-country contacts. Finally, the systems should consider the use of research tools used in the assessment mission such as document study, interviews and focus groups (Siegel, 2009).


The society expects the courts to decide if people are guilty or not, sentence the guilty to punishment, interpret the laws made by the legislative, set the legal precedents, and to uphold the constitutional protections.


Government Printing Office. Congressional Record.

Green G and Fischer J. (2004). Introduction to security. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Siegel, l. J. (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning.


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