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History of modern times is full of different events and movements, which have been attracting the attention of the publicity for many years already. Those people who are fond of history may find good grounding for numerous discussions and critics. The libraries have a good store of different books and articles related to the historical topic and cinematograph helps the audience to understand completely some problems by means of their screen adaptation. It should be mentioned that political topics and problems of political movements always attract great attention of the readers, as it is exactly politics that is the subject of lively and exciting discussions. Needless to say that the question of equality of men and women in society gives the plot to the numerous movements in different countries. Many politicians made great contribution to the politics of not only their country but the world politics as well. Olympe de Gouges belonged to this kind of politicians.

During the period of French Revolution Olympe de Gouge was treated as the voice for women struggling for women’s suffrage. Olympe was struggling for the right of women to vote, as well as for their general equality in society. Being brought up in the society with male domination, Olympe quickly realized all the problems that had to be solved and found the necessary directions to be taken. At that time, the greatest part of men's population regarded themselves advanced to women, and women were afraid to argue with this point of view and contradict it. It was a normal state of affairs although living in such conditions was awesome for women. During the French Revolution, the government had regained its self-assurance and denied to listen to any new demands and necessities for reforms. In its place, it increased political subjugation and police observation. Olympe is rightfully regarded as outstanding and significant person in the history of French suffrage movement. She has the full right to be called the voice of French women. Her thoughts and approach to the freedom of choice and women’s rights that she proposed were really reasonable. 

Olympe is the author of the first and one of the most famous documents asserting the necessity of the equity of men and women. One of the main laws that the author tries to promote is the perseverance of all natural and social rights of women. Olympe asserts that all women should enjoy the same rights with men. It concerns every area of social and political life. One of the main statements that the author provides is that woman should have the same political and social rights and bear the same responsibility for every action they may take. According to the point of view of Olympe, there should not be any limitations to women in expressing their views, as the legislation presupposes that everybody has the right for the expression free will, thoughts and actions. The task of Olympe de Gouge was to demonstrate the French government that women also had the same rights as men and there was no right to overlook women’s demands and ideas. Olympe tried to focus on the problem of patriarchy, stating that that it limits the liberty and equity of citizens. The material foundation of patriarchy, the control of women's labor, permits men controlling women's right to use to productive resources (Lenner 45). The ability to bear children permits women reproducing patriarchal social relations, comprising intergenerational male-female relationships. Such kind of relations can lead to the misunderstanding within the society.  Women are also the citizens that are able to enjoy the same tights with men and there should not be any limits to this. From her point of view, patriarch structure of society does not lead to anything except the split within the society. Patriarchy, from the point of view of Gauge is not the best way of regime in the government, because men and women should be equal in their rights and should have the same responsibilities (Surhone and Timpledon 25). According to patriarch government only men are responsible for all the available assets and they can control the labor of women.

Gouges struggled for the conducting of certain type of reforms the main aim of which is to improve life conditions. The first part of reforms, recommended by de Gouges were connected with those to the marriage contract. From her point of view this type of contract was necessary as it could guarantee women the perseverance of their rights and property in case of the diverse. According to the reform of marriage contract, women obtained the right for some property. The contract presupposed that one part of it, that is wife, was entitled with the same rights as the second part that is husband. From her point of view, these reforms could improve the position of women in society and make them equal to men.

One more governmental theory under discussion is capitalism and its critique by Karl Marx. From his point of view, this system is not the best for any government and it can only lead to the negative results, as this system is one of inequality and conflict between classes within one society.  Marx is, probably, the most divisive economist in the history of economy. His writings are actively studied and discussed. He was a famous critic of capitalism. He worked at the studying of capitalism comprehensively and much of his writings are concentrated on the problems of capitalism and particularly on the utilization of the worker as the main power of production. By examining the origin of capitalism and the Marxist evaluation of capitalism, we can better understand Marx’s points of view. Capitalism and its studying was the deal of all his life. Marx spent a great part of time studying the change of the feudal society to a new model of society that is to capitalism evaluating its principles, advantages and disadvantages. Before the change to capitalism society took place, there was industrial revolution in England. This revolution influenced practically all the countries of Europe. That is why Russia was not an exception. Capitalist movement and ideas start spreading over the territories of Russia, evoking a great number of for and against issues.

Marx takes as the main point the idea that the leading class, the bourgeoisie, takes control over capital, property, the means of manufacture, and hence by addition all those (far more abundant than the bourgeoisie) who compose the laboring class. Indeed, Marx sees equality between capital, property, and the means of manufacture, which are all concentrated in the hands of bourgeoisie. According to Marks, capitalism is a power that can lead to the division of society into two main parts, and can result in the absence of the middle class. According to capitalism as a system of the government, property and means of production belong to bourgeoisie, thus leading to the appearance of conflict within the society. According to Marks, property and means of production should belong to each member of society, in other way such inequity can result in conflicts. Throughout his work, the primary concern of Marx was the rational demolition of capitalism. Although he believed in progressive history and the expected downfall of capitalism, Marx supposed that in destroying the intellectual maintain of capitalism he could speed up its real demise and conduct in a socialist era. Speaking about Marx’s works, many of them can be considered as reactions to the increasing status of the comparatively new sphere of political economy. The views of Marks were based on the principles and ideas of such great economists and philosophers, such as Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus, whose tolerant theories promoted an addition of precisely the features of capitalism that Marx considered as substandard. Hence, his analysis ranges from attacks on the satisfied moderate basis of capitalism to compound analyses of the economics of the day and of foremost theorists.

Marx argued the ideas of capitalism and tried to find as many disadvantages of it as possible. His ideas have a lot of supporters and opponents. According to Marks, the capitalists have increased the ability of workers to perform the work harder, quicker and for longer time periods, but at the same time they have deprived the workers from their personal prosperity coming from the products manufactured by them. So, what was the overcome, according to Marx? He, basically, believed that in order to defeat estrangement, it is necessary to overcome the capitalists. The worker should be paid less then the price of the product manufactured by him. So, in this case we observe the process of exploitation (Marx 36). Marx asserts that what our ability to modify and form the world that surrounds us makes people human. In addition, human beings are very sociable, but under capitalism conditions, everything is truthfully confidentially owned and class separates the society. Labor process is the lack of control over the process of manufacturing. Marks supposed that working class has a complete right to control the result of its production in order to avoid the separation within the society and avoid creation of upper and lower classes. Division of labor, in accordance with Marx, is the basis the capitalism will fall and communism will arise.

In the capitalist reality of Marx, division of labor is an essential condition for commodity manufacturing. Marx considered reforms and introduction of a new system of government as essential steps capitalist society should take (Marx and Engels 15). According to Marx, socialism is one of the most successful and necessary reforms of the government. He supposed that only socialism could help the country to avoid crisis and division of society. As Marx stated, socialism is a political and economic system that advocates communal or governmental possession and the management of the means of manufacturing and distribution of goods and services. In the ideal socialist society, there is no any private property and everyone cares for those less providential. In this system of government, everyone has usually the same quantity of money. This society is lack of upper classes or lower classes, there is only one middle class.  Many theorists say that this idea sounds like the utopia, as there is not such a model of society, where the others do not control the labor of ones. Socialism is able to increase the liberty of the society and lead to the equality between classes in the society. Obviously, capitalism has its own advantages, such as economic growth and rapid progress in science. However, its main result is division of society and lack of working class development.

Comparing the works and ideas of Marx and gauge, we can say that they have a lot in common. Both of these political leaders were struggling for equity and rights. The views of both leaders were based on the essence of traditions and ideas of equity in rights of people of different classes. Despite the feminists’ points of view by Gouge, her reforms sound very reasonable, as they are devoted to the problems of equity between classes. 

The works and ideas of Marx and Gauge were discussed and criticized by Edmund Burke. He believed that these kinds of revolutionary reforms are dangerous for the well-being of society. He considered that each flourishing political movement comprises diverse and often military elements bound together by more than power of feeling and the tempt of power, so it would be rater incorrect to look for untarnished ideological steadiness in a political party. He asserted that political movements and reforms are very dangerous for society as they van lead to conflicts and using of military forces (Burke 7). The thing is that our history did not witness such cases when any political reform was completely supported by every party and every member of society. There were many cases when the reforms and changes of the political ands social life resulted in the revolutionary and military conflicts. Obviously, stability is not a bad thing, but the way to it may result in different negative consequences, such as conflicts and usage of military power.

To my mind, I agree that the dedication to traditions and customs of society can really trump the dedication to the values and liberty, as people are so accustomed to old traditions and way of life and it is very difficult for them to dedicate themselves to something new. Probably, this is an explanation why we were living in the feudal society for so long period. Traditions are so penetrated into our life that it is difficult to imagine it without them. They deal with every sphere of modern life, including politics.

Works Cited

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France (Oxford World's Classics). New York:  Oxford University Press, 2009
Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Patriarchy (Women & History). New York:  Oxford University Press, 2010
Marx, Karle, Engels  Friedrich. The Communist Manifesto: New York: Indo-European, 2010

Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. London: CreateSpace, 2010

Surhone, Lambert, Timpledon, Miriam.  Olympe de Gouges: Feminism, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, Patriarchy, Reign of Terror, Maximilien Robespierre. Dallas: Betascript Publishing


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