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Pysc.

In health psychology, the multifactorial model is a foremost paradigm that distinguishes the all-around nature of illnesses. The multi factorial representation is an approach to health and health care that holds the conviction that an individulas good health is a function of numerous factors operating together. This model takes into account an individual biological factors comprising of immune system, genetics, and chronic pain; environmental features including pollution and job hazards; psychological factors comprising of anger, stress, and personality; cultural and sociocultural and factors coprising of things such as family size and the access of health care. Getting to undertand these diverse factors about an individual like their genetic composition and environmental factors can be a large tool in early identification of and understanding risk factors of various diseases. It is not a straightforward, simple case that a disease is as a result of a particular factor. The reality is that decades if not over a century of contemporary research has resulted to the acknowledgment that a multitude of factors, as well as their connections, play a role in illness and in determination of health (Ricki, 2003).the various factors that are indicated by multifactorial model to be the variety of probable influences or origins of diseases comprise of the socio cultural, psychological, environmental, and stressors. This broad vary of factors, which comprise of both those within and without the control of an individual, are what determines an individual's health and his/her intensity of defenselessness to health problems (Ricki, 2003).

Personality or psychological and other factors related to an individual behavior feature in quite a big number of health problems. This can be evidenced by the many number of deaths that could be prevented that occur every year in the United States of America. For instance, smoking is a cause of over 400,000 deaths yearly as a result of cancer, lung disease, heart diseases and stroke. Approximately over 300,000 yearly deaths that occur as a result of stroke, cancer, heart disease and diabetes can essentially be prevented by employment of proper exercise and good diet. Control or moderation of alcohol consumption, immunizations and safe sex practices or abstinence could also go a long way in preventing deaths from infectious diseases, injuries/accidents and vehicular and many disease that are transmitted sexually (Ricki, 2003). It should be noted very well that negative states of one’s psychology and depression can actually lead to a damaged immune system. This is so for the reason that, dissimilar from the popular thinking, the physical and mental are not completely separate domains but, somewhat entwined (Ricki, 2003).

Biological factors in this comprise of gender, age, various injuries, inoculations and exposure to various pathogens. Some individuals will unknowingly make an assumption that their health is condemned by, say, a family history of diabetes while it’s a function of one’s genetic make-up which is beyond a capacity of an individual to be altered. Because of a family history of a certain disease, some individuals will think fatalistically that there is nothing that can be done to perk up their possibilities of overcoming or escaping a given disease. According to National Cancer Institute’s Dr. Robert N. Hoover, many cases of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and others just give rise to predilections, not actually certainties (Ricki, 2003).

Environmental factors comprise of the water quality, pollution, hygiene from sanitation and solid waste treatment, global warming, natural disasters and the ozone layer depletion. Individual stressors are responsible for a wide vary of circumstances comprising of hassles at home, time pressure, co-workers, and financial insecurity; major life changes; frustrations; workplace circumstances; and rejection or isolation by peers (Ricki, 2003). Consequently, the multifactorial model, in the diagnosis of an illness, takes into consideration the potential roles that are taken on by biological, psychological, environmental/cultural factors, together with their relations (Ricki, 2003). The appliance of the psychological health model in the United States is in various studies that try to give explanation on the phenomenon of black Americans apparently being affected by various health problems more as judged against to the European Americans.

A person is more likely to be diagnosed of cancer if that person is encountering chronic stress. Those who are in excellent psychological health are not as much of apt to smoke, and definitely apt to smoke less. Psychological treatments are employed in combating nausea coming as a result of chemotherapy management for cancer. According to various studies, people who have been taught skills of relaxation are better capable of distracting themselves from the negative consequences of chemotherapy. People undergoing various cancer treatments for instance radiation, chemotherapy, and radical surgeries are most prone to have feelings of depression, lack of control, stress and even anger. Such fveelings are comprehensible but if they turn out to be chronic they can depressingly have an effect on the immune system. And individuals are better capable to restore to health after surgery.

Considerations of ethnicity have resulted to studies which show that African-Americans may certainly be genetically prone to hypertension, however, at the same time, stress, poor diet, and smoking to a great extent add to the advancement of the disease. Same considerations have resulted to the findings the predisposition of Afro-Americans to have poorer level of access to worth health care facilitate in explaining, for example, why they are less prone to undergo

The multifactorial model is a more of a holistic medical problems approach. It puts into consideration an individual as a whole; their lifestyle and history, rather than only one faulty system or organ. This model results to a more precise treatment and diagnosis.

 

References:

Ricki Lewis (2003), Multifactorial Traits, McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Jannink, J; Bink, Mc; Jansen, Rc (Aug 2001). "Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes". Trends in plant science 6 (8): 337–42.

 

 

 

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